The consulting practice of CM Solutions has over 20 years of experience in advising clients how to get more value from their ore deposits and processing plants. Our expanding team of consultants has developed a wide range of expertise, traversing from onsite optimization, through flowsheet design, and on to technical auditing, due diligence, and forensic investigation.

Our consultants turn test work data and experience into the knowledge that tackles the individual challenges brought to us by our clients.

Our Capabilities


Flowsheeting is the engineering of a process flowsheet. It brings together knowledge of chemistry, equipment performance, mass and energy balancing, and plant operations to design a flowsheet that optimizes recovery and minimizes consumption and waste. Our team of consultants are world class in the design of metallurgical flowsheets. We have developed flowsheets for a great variety of commodities, ranging from copper SXEW plants and gold plants, through to operations for titanium dioxide production, vanadium peroxide production, PGM refining, autocat recycling, urban mining, and black mass recycling, amongst many others.

Capacity studies

Capacity studies determine what excess capacity is possibly available in a process or a piece of equipment. Our team of engineers has developed methodologies for the assessment of the capacity of hydrometallurgical reactors, such as autoclaves, leaching reactors, and precipitation reactors.

Mass and energy balances

Mass and energy balances form part of flowsheeting. Our team of engineers has developed a world-class solution, Cycad Process®, that catalyses our team’s efficiency and productivity. This solution is accurate to parts per billion, enabling our team to effectively design process flowsheets for high purity products.

Advisory Services

Our advisory services include NI 43-101 contributions, plant audits, due diligence reports, forensic audits, and expert testimony.

Process Optimization

Our team of engineers assist clients to optimize their operations through a multiprong, multidisciplinary approach. This might involve process control, plant trials, onsite campaigns. Our team of engineers has performed such functions at concentrators and hydrometallurgical refineries.

Process design

Our team of engineers is experienced in developing and designing processes for our clients, specializing in the process metallurgy, flowsheeting, mass and energy balances of the broader design project.

A particular strength is the detailed and in-depth study of particular equipment, for example, autoclaves in which complex chemistry occurs, or rotary kiln design in which both radiative heat transfer and sublimating and reacting materials require modelling. In a further example, our team has developed what is perhaps the most complete and flexible model of heap leaching.

Our Projects

Client & Project Description


Anglo Operations
Blast optimisation study
Desktop study report and recommended required methodology
Zinc recovery improvement on a
flotation plant
Achieved a measureable improvement through control and process changes
Total acid consumption of heap grade sample
TAC test work
Rand Refineries
Sulfide treatment options desktop study
Desktop study report
Zinc oxide production desktop study
Desktop study report
Rand Refineries
Base metal treatment plant flowsheet development
Mass and energy balances, block flow diagrams, process design criteria for each alternative investigated
Detailed copper leach-SX-EW flowsheet development
Mass and energy balances, process flow diagrams and process design criteria
Detailed copper leach-SX-EW flowsheet development
Mass and energy balances, process flow diagrams, process design criteria, production and reagent report
SNC Lavlin
Detailed copper leach-SX-EW flowsheet development
Mass and energy balances, process flow diagrams, process design criteria, production and reagent report
Anglo American Platinum
BMR process definition studies
Consulting report, detailed kinetic leach modelling, capacity statements
AngloGold Ashanti
AngloGold Ashanti Technology Innovation Consortium
Assisted in the conceptualisation of an ISL development framework
Conceptual study for treatment of a copper sulfide & oxide ore body
Concept report, BFDs, mass & energy balances
Chambishi Metals
Design of pressure leaching plant
PFS design report
Hindustan Zinc
Concentrator control systems review
Consulting report
Boss Mining
Metallurgical Management Review – DMS, concentrator plant
Consulting report
Anglo Platinum
Thermodynamic assessment of hydrochlorination
Consulting report
Strategies for treating copper sulfide concentrates
Concept design
Copper-cobalt circuit
Mass balance for final design
UK company
Recycling of rechargeable automobile batteries
Concept design report
Impurity bleed stream with SX treatment
Process design package: PFDs, P&Ids, equipment, valve, line etc lists
Anglo Platinum
General consulting related to the BMR expansion project
Overall control philosophy, Operational readiness for metallurgists
Capacity of First Stage Leach
Capacity statement
Anglo American
Value-engineering on titanium flowsheet
Early stage design deliverables
Heap leaching modelling
Heap leaching Plant models
Anglo Platinum
Treatment of Secondary Leach Residue
Process flow diagrams, mass and energy balances, design criteria, P&IDs, line lists, valve lists.
Anglo Platinum
Current and new base metal refinery (nickel, copper leaching, electrowinning, crystallisation)
Block flow diagrams, mass and energy balances.
Lonmin Platinum
Kinetic modelling, and process design for optimization of First Stage Leaching operation
Process flow diagrams, mass and energy balances, process design criteria.
Anglo Base
Hydrometallurgical treatment of a titanium ore
Process flow diagrams, mass and energy balances.
Anglo Base
Pyrometallurgical treatment of a precipitated titanium product
Block flow diagrams, mass and energy balances
TWP / Meta Mining
Processing a nickel/cobalt mixed hydroxide by SX and electrowinning
Block flow diagrams, mass and energy balances.
Anglo Base
Seven options for the treatment of a zinc deposit
Block flow diagrams, mass and energy balances.
Metals Finance Africa
Recovery of iron oxide – a variety of process options, including SX, pyrohydrolysis, ion exchange etc.
Block flow diagrams, mass and energy balances.
TWP / Chambishi
SX circuit for a copper producer – included full circuit, including upfront roasting and SO2 scrubbing
Full and final process flow diagrams
Impala Platinum
Base metal refinery for a major platinum producer
Full process flow diagrams.
Anglo Platinum
Ruthenium distillation
Process flow diagrams.